This glossary provides definitions of terms specific to the Terra Protocol.
The top 130 validators that participate in consensus, receive rewards, and secure the blockchain.
An unchangeable ledger of transactions copied among a network of independent computer systems.
Groups of information stored on a blockchain. Each block contains transactions that are grouped, verified, and signed by validators.
When a user delegates or bonds Luna to a validator to receive staking rewards. Validators never have ownership of a delegator's Luna, even when bonded. Delegating, bonding, and staking generally refer to the same process.
A special fund designated for funding community projects. Any community member can create a governance proposal to spend the tokens in the community pool. If the proposal passes, the funds are spent as specified in the proposal.
A system used by validators or miners to agree that each block of transactions in a blockchain is correct. The Terra blockchain uses the Tendermint consensus. Validators earn rewards for participating in consensus. Visit the Tendermint official documentation site for more information.
The open-source framework the Terra blockchain is built on. For more information, check out the Cosmos SDK Documentation.
An application built on a decentralized platform.
Distributed denial of service attack. When an attacker floods a network with traffic or requests in order to disrupt service.
Decentralized finance. A movement away from traditional finance and toward systems that do not require financial intermediaries.
When users or delegators add their Luna to a validator's stake in exchange for rewards. Delegated Luna is bonded to a validator. Validators never have ownership of a delegator's Luna. Delegating, bonding, and staking generally refer to the same process.
- Gas: Compute fees added on to all transactions to avoid spamming. Validators set minimum gas prices and reject transactions that have applied gas prices below this threshold.
For more information on fees, visit Fees on Terra.
Governance is the democratic process that allows users and validators to make changes to the Terra protocol. Community members submit, vote, and implement proposals. One staked Luna is equal to one vote.
A written submission for a change or addition to the Terra blockchain. Topics of proposals can vary from community pool spending, software changes, or parameter changes.
Inter-Blockchain Communication. The technology that enables different blockchains to interact with each other. IBC allows for assets to be traded and transacted across different blockchains.
Validators who misbehave are jailed or excluded from the active set for a period of time.
The native staking token of the Terra protocol. Luna is also used as a governance token. Delegators can stake Luna to receive rewards.
When a vote fails to be included in consensus.
A section of the Terra Core that represents a particular function of the Terra protocol. Visit the Terra Core module specifications for more information.
The latest version of the Terra mainnet.
Groups of tokens. Supply pools represent the total supply of tokens in a market.
Proof of Stake
The minimum amount of votes needed to make an election viable. 40% of all staked Luna must vote to meet quorum. If quorum is not met before the voting period ends, the proposal fails, and the proposer's deposit is burned.
When a delegator wants to transfer their bonded luna to a different validator. Redelegating Luna is instant and does not require a 21-day unbonding period.
Revenue generated from fees given to validators and disbursed to delegators.
The amount of Luna a validator bonds to themselves. Also referred to as self-bonding.
Punishment for validators that misbehave. Validators lose part of their stake when they get slashed.
For more information, see slashing in the description of the Terra protocol.
The difference in a coin's price between the start and end of a transaction.
The amount of Luna bonded to a validator.
When a user delegates or bonds their Luna to an active validator to receive rewards. Bonded Luna adds to a validator's stake. Validators provide their stakes as collateral to participate in the consensus process. Validators with larger stakes are chosen to participate more often. Validators receive staking rewards for their participation. A validator's stake can be slashed if the validator misbehaves. Validators never have ownership of a delegator's Luna, even when staked.
For more information on staking, visit the concepts page.
The proof-of-stake consensus procedure utilized by the Terra protocol. When a validator proposes a new block, the remaining validators then vote on the block in two voting rounds. If a block receives a two-thirds or greater majority of yes votes in both rounds, it gets added to the blockchain. All validators get rewarded with the block's transaction fees, however, the initial proposer of the block will receive a slightly higher reward. For each new block, a validator is selected to propose based on their weight. Check out the Tendermint official documentation for more information.
The official source code for the Terra protocol.
For more information on the Terra Core, see Terra Core modules.
The Terra protocol's blockchain network where all transactions take place.
Terra's native wallet and platform for swaps, governance, and staking. In Station, you can send, receive, and stake Terra tokens. You can also participate in governance and vote on proposals.
To learn how to install and get started using Terra Station, visit the Terra Station tutorial.
To learn how to use the advanced features of Terra Station, visit the Terra Station how-to guide.
The command line interface for interacting with a Terra node.
For more information on Terrad, see the Terrad guides.
A validator's public address beginning with
terravaloper followed by a string of characters.
A copy of the mainnet network used for testing. The testnet does not use real tokens. You can use the testnet to get familiar with carrying out transactions on Terra. The current testnet for Terra is
The Terra ecosystem
A quickly expanding network of decentralized applications built on the Terra protocol.
A tombstoned validator is blocked from participating in consensus and cannot rejoin the active set.
The total amount of Luna bonded to a delegator, including self-bonded Luna.
Luna that can be freely traded and is not staked to a validator.
A validator that is not in the active set and does not participate in consensus or receive rewards. Some unbonded validators may be jailed.
When a delegator decides to undelegate their Luna from a validator. This process takes 21 days. No rewards accrue during this period. This action cannot be stopped once executed.
Luna that is transitioning from bonded to unbonded. Luna that is unbonding cannot be traded freely. The unbonding process takes 21 days. No rewards accrue during this period. This action cannot be stopped once executed.
A validator transitioning from the active set to the inactive set. An unbonding validator does not participate in consensus or earn rewards. The unbonding process takes 21 days.
When a delegator no longer wants to have their Luna bonded to a validator. This process takes 21 days. No rewards accrue during this period. This action cannot be stopped once executed.
A Terra blockchain miner responsible for verifying transactions on the blockchain. Validators run programs called full nodes that allow them to participate in consensus, verify blocks, participate in governance, and receive rewards. The top 130 validators with the highest total stake can participate in consensus.
For more information on validators, visit the concepts page.