This section is a reference for the functions available from
terracli, the command line interface that connects a running
terrad process. For more information on the command usage, refer to its help screen:
terracli config --help.
# Accessing a Node
In order to query the state and send transactions, you need a way to access the network.
terracli is only the interface to access Terra; a node is the access point connected to the rest of the network through peer connections. You can either run your own full-node, or connect to someone else's.
# Running your own full-node
This is the most secure option, but comes with relatively high resource requirements. In order to run your own full-node, you need good amount of cpu core, bandwidth, amount of memory, and disk space.
# Connecting to a remote full-node
If you do not want or cannot run your own node, you can connect to someone else's full-node. You should pick an operator you trust, because a malicious operator could return incorrect query results or censor your transactions. However, they will never be able to steal your funds, as your private keys are stored locally on your computer or ledger device. Possible options of full-node operators include validators, wallet providers or exchanges.
In order to connect to the full-node, you will need an address of the following form:
https://18.104.22.168:26657 (Note: This is a sample address). This address has to be communicated by the full-node operator you choose to trust. You will use this address in the following section.
# Configuring terracli
terracli is the tool that enables you to interact with the node that runs on the Terra Protocol network, whether you run it yourself or not. Let us set it up properly.
In order to set up
terracli, use the following command:
terracli config <flag> <value>
It allows you to set a default value for each given flag.
First, set up the address of the full-node you want to connect to:
# example: terracli config node https://22.214.171.124:26657 terracli config node <host>:<port>
If you run your own full-node, just use
tcp://localhost:26657 as the address.
Then, let us set the default value of the
# Set to true if you run a light-client node, false otherwise terracli config trust-node false
Finally, let us set the
chain-id of the blockchain we want to interact with:
terracli config chain-id tequila-0004
# Querying Blockchain State
terracli lets you query all relevant information from the blockchain, like account balances, amount of bonded tokens, outstanding rewards, and more. Next is a list of the most useful commands for delegators.
# query account balances and other account-related information terracli query account # query the list of validators terracli query staking validators # query the information of a validator given their address terracli query staking validator <validatorAddress> # query all delegations made from a delegator given their address # (note: delegator addresses are regular account addresses) terracli query staking delegations <delegatorAddress> # query a specific delegation made from a delegator to a validator terracli query staking delegation <delegatorAddress> <validatorAddress> # query the rewards of a delegator given a delegator address (e.g. terra10snjt8dmpr5my0h76xj48ty80uzwhraqalu4eg) terracli query distr rewards <delegatorAddress>
For more commands, just type:
For each command, you can use the
--help flag to get more information.
# Sending Transactions
Other than querying blockchain data,
terracli is used to interact with the blockchain, sending transactions containing module messages with state-changing directives that get processed and included in blocks. All of transaction-sending operations follow the form:
terracli tx ...
Please check each module subsection in the side menu to learn more about different types of transactions you can issue.
# Simulating a transaction
You can simulate a transaction without actually broadcasting it by appending the
--dry-run flag to the command line:
terracli tx send \ <from_key_or_address> \ <to_address> \ <coins> \ --chain-id=<chain_id> \ --dry-run
# Generating a transaction without sending
Furthermore, you can build a transaction and print its JSON format to STDOUT by appending
--generate-only to the list of the command line arguments. This allows you to separate the creation and signing of a transaction with the broadcasting.
terracli tx send \ <from_key_or_address> \ <to_address> \ <coins> \ --chain-id=<chain_id> \ --generate-only > unsignedSendTx.json
terracli tx sign \ --chain-id=<chain_id> \ --from=<key_name> \ unsignedSendTx.json > signedSendTx.json
You can validate the transaction's signatures by typing the following:
terracli tx sign --validate-signatures signedSendTx.json
You can broadcast the signed transaction to a node by providing the JSON file to the following command:
terracli tx broadcast --node=<node> signedSendTx.json
Transactions on the Terra Protocol network need to include a transaction fee in order to be processed. This fee pays for the gas required to run the transaction. The formula is the following:
gas is dependent on the transaction. Different transaction require different amount of
gas amount for a transaction is calculated as it is being processed, but there is a way to estimate it beforehand by using the
auto value for the
gas flag. Of course, this only gives an estimate. You can adjust this estimate with the flag
1.0) if you want to be sure you provide enough
gas for the transaction.
gasPrice is the price of each unit of
gas. Each validator sets a
min-gas-price value, and will only include transactions that have a
gasPrice greater than their
fees are the product of
gasPrice. As a user, you have to input 2 out of 3. The higher the
fees, the higher the chance that your transaction will get included in a block.
# Setting Fees
Each transaction may either supply fees or gas prices, but not both. Most users will typically provide fees as this is the final cost you will end up incurring for the transaction being included in the ledger, where as gas prices will be dynamically calculated depending on the validator.
Validators specify a minimum gas price that they use to determine whether to include a transaction, which they calculate during
gasPrices >= minGasPrices. Note, your transaction must supply fees that are greater than or equal to any of the denominations the validator requires.
Validators may start to prioritize transactions by
gasPrice in the mempool, so providing higher fees or gas prices will likely yield higher priority of inclusion in a block.
To directly use fees:
terracli tx send ... --fees=100000uluna
If you use fees, validators will calculate the implied
minGasPrices by dividing your fee with the estimated gas consumption, to properly assign the right priority to your transaction.
To use gas prices (use a comma-separated list of amount and denominations).
terracli tx send ... --gas-prices=0.03uluna,0.015ukrw
Taxes in Terra must be included in the fee amount. Users can make transactions with existing methods without the
--fees flag but with gas prices flag. This will automatically calculate the tax and return fees in addition to the existing gas fees.
# Automatic Fee Estimation
You may want to cap the maximum gas that can be consumed by the transaction via the
--gas flag. If you pass
--gas=auto, the gas will be automatically estimated before executing the transaction.
Gas estimate might be inaccurate as state changes could occur in between the end of the simulation and the actual execution of a transaction, thus an adjustment is applied on top of the original estimate in order to ensure the transaction is broadcasted successfully.
The adjustment can be controlled via the
--gas-adjustment flag, whose default value is 1.0.
To get a direct fee estimation from
terracli tx estimate-fee ...\ --gas-prices=0.015uluna --gas-adjustment=1.4
To create and send transactions using fee-estimation, use the template below as a format:
terracli tx send ... \ --gas-prices=0.015uluna --gas=auto --gas-adjustment=1.4
# Shell Autocompletion
Auto-completion scripts for popular UNIX shell interpreters such as
zsh can be generated through the
completion command, which is available for both
terracli. This allows for a more convenient way to interact with the Terra Core endpoints when using the command-line.
If you want to generate
bash completion scripts run the following command:
terrad completion > terrad_completion terracli completion > terracli_completion
If you want to generate
zsh completion scripts run the following command:
terrad completion --zsh > terrad_completion terracli completion --zsh > terracli_completion
On most UNIX systems, such scripts may be loaded in
.bash_profile to enable Bash autocompletion.
echo '. terrad_completion' >> ~/.bashrc echo '. terracli_completion' >> ~/.bashrc
Refer to the user's manual of your interpreter provided by your operating system for information on how to enable shell autocompletion.