# Multisig

A multisig account is a Terra account with a special key that can require more than one signatures to sign transactions. This can be useful for increasing the security of the account or for requiring the consent of multiple parties to make transactions. Multisig accounts can be created by specifying:

  • threshold number of signatures required
  • the public keys involved in signing

To sign with a multisig account, the transaction must be signed individually by the different keys specified for the account. Then, the signatures will be combined into a multisignature which can be used to sign the transaction. If fewer than the threshold number of signatures needed are present, the resultant multisignature is considered invalid.

# Generate a Multisig key

terracli keys add --multisig=name1,name2,name3[...] --multisig-threshold=K new_key_name

K is the minimum number of private keys that must have signed the transactions that carry the public key's address as signer.

The --multisig flag must contain the name of public keys that will be combined into a public key that will be generated and stored as new_key_name in the local database. All names supplied through --multisig must already exist in the local database.

Unless the flag --nosort is set, the order in which the keys are supplied on the command line does not matter, i.e. the following commands generate two identical keys:

terracli keys add --multisig=p1,p2,p3 --multisig-threshold=2 multisig_address
terracli keys add --multisig=p2,p3,p1 --multisig-threshold=2 multisig_address

Multisig addresses can also be generated on-the-fly and printed through the which command:

terracli keys show --multisig-threshold=K name1 name2 name3 [...]

# Signing a transaction

NOTE

This example uses test1, test2, test3 keys from LocalTerra (opens new window). Import them into your terracli keystore to follow along.

# Step 1: Create the multisig key

Let's assume that you have test1 and test2 want to make a multisig account with test3.

First import the public keys of test3 into your keyring.

terracli keys add \
    test3 \
    --pubkey=terrapub1addwnpepqgcxazmq6wgt2j4rdfumsfwla0zfk8e5sws3p3zg5dkm9007hmfysxas0u2

Generate the multisig key with 2/3 threshold.

terracli keys add \
    multi \
    --multisig=test1,test2,test3 \
    --multisig-threshold=2

You can see its address and details:

terracli keys show multi

- name: multi
  type: multi
  address: terra1e0fx0q9meawrcq7fmma9x60gk35lpr4xk3884m
  pubkey: terrapub1ytql0csgqgfzd666axrjzq3mxw59ys6yqcd3ydjvhgs0uzs6kdk5fp4t73gmkl8t6y02yfq7tvfzd666axrjzq3sd69kp5usk492x6nehqjal67ynv0nfqapzrzy3gmdk27la0kjfqfzd666axrjzq6utqt639ka2j3xkncgk65dup06t297ccljmxhvhu3rmk92u3afjuyz9dg9
  mnemonic: ""
  threshold: 0
  pubkeys: []

Let's add 10 LUNA to the multisig wallet:

terracli tx send \
    test1 \
    terra1e0fx0q9meawrcq7fmma9x60gk35lpr4xk3884m \
    10000000uluna \
    --chain-id=localterra \
    --gas=auto \
    --fees=100000uluna \
    --broadcast-mode=block

# Step 2: Create the multisig transaction

We want to send 5 LUNA from our multisig account to terra1fmcjjt6yc9wqup2r06urnrd928jhrde6gcld6n.

terracli tx send \
    terra1e0fx0q9meawrcq7fmma9x60gk35lpr4xk3884m \
    terra1fmcjjt6yc9wqup2r06urnrd928jhrde6gcld6n \
    5000000uluna \
    --gas=200000 \
    --fees=100000uluna \
    --chain-id=localterra \
    --generate-only > unsignedTx.json

The file unsignedTx.json contains the unsigned transaction encoded in JSON.

{
  "type": "core/StdTx",
  "value": {
    "msg": [
      {
        "type": "bank/MsgSend",
        "value": {
          "from_address": "terra1e0fx0q9meawrcq7fmma9x60gk35lpr4xk3884m",
          "to_address": "terra1fmcjjt6yc9wqup2r06urnrd928jhrde6gcld6n",
          "amount": [{ "denom": "uluna", "amount": "5000000" }]
        }
      }
    ],
    "fee": {
      "amount": [{ "denom": "uluna", "amount": "100000" }],
      "gas": "200000"
    },
    "signatures": null,
    "memo": ""
  }
}

# Step 3: Sign individually

Sign with test1 and test2 and create individual signatures.

terracli tx sign \
    unsignedTx.json \
    --multisig=terra1e0fx0q9meawrcq7fmma9x60gk35lpr4xk3884m \
    --from=test1 \
    --output-document=test1sig.json \
    --chain-id=localterra
terracli tx sign \
    unsignedTx.json \
    --multisig=terra1e0fx0q9meawrcq7fmma9x60gk35lpr4xk3884m \
    --from=test2 \
    --output-document=test2sig.json \
    --chain-id=localterra

# Step 4: Create multisignature

Combine signatures to sign transaction.

terracli tx multisign \
    unsignedTx.json \
    multi \
    test1sig.json test2sig.json \
    --output-document=signedTx.json \
    --chain-id=localterra

The TX is now signed:

{
  "type": "core/StdTx",
  "value": {
    "msg": [
      {
        "type": "bank/MsgSend",
        "value": {
          "from_address": "terra1e0fx0q9meawrcq7fmma9x60gk35lpr4xk3884m",
          "to_address": "terra1fmcjjt6yc9wqup2r06urnrd928jhrde6gcld6n",
          "amount": [{ "denom": "uluna", "amount": "5000000" }]
        }
      }
    ],
    "fee": {
      "amount": [{ "denom": "uluna", "amount": "100000" }],
      "gas": "200000"
    },
    "signatures": [
      {
        "pub_key": {
          "type": "tendermint/PubKeyMultisigThreshold",
          "value": {
            "threshold": "2",
            "pubkeys": [
              {
                "type": "tendermint/PubKeySecp256k1",
                "value": "AjszqFJDRAYbEjZMuiD+ChqzbUSGq/RRu3zr0R6iJB5b"
              },
              {
                "type": "tendermint/PubKeySecp256k1",
                "value": "AjBui2DTkLVKo2p5uCXf68SbHzSDoRDESKNtsr3+vtJI"
              },
              {
                "type": "tendermint/PubKeySecp256k1",
                "value": "A1xYF6iW3VSia08ItqjeBfpai+xj8tmuy/Ij3YquR6mX"
              }
            ]
          }
        },
        "signature": "CgUIAxIBoBJA6oiaOabR1jBIbDyFj/1sYjMbYNxe+BSTnp0XYM+frC8fHxXStJ+Tl5Hf+3BsyBg1wvX1pDFsTHI7nMKNlJkKfRJAAt2cOJuViJvtwVRGwhNDORmekDSbcodnyMHTwz2Ve4db7B9m/CjYZmJtilV7zk8RWVX6Agjrl/0K5PSQZv29/A=="
      }
    ],
    "memo": ""
  }
}

# Step 5: Broadcast transaction

terracli tx broadcast signedTx.json \
    --chain-id=localterra \
    --broadcast-mode=block